Juan Torres, UNALM
In the face of uncertain scenarios brought about by climate change in the coming years, Adaptation based on Ecosystems (AbE) turns out to be the most comprehensive strategy for tackling a global problem.
In such a process, this approach has been gaining room, generating a family of concepts based on that of ecosystems which better characterize the nuances of nature. Thus, we have the concept of Ecosystem Services; Thus, we have the concept of Ecosystem Services; in addition, other concepts have been gaining momentum such as resilience; yet others have implicitly and humbly recognized the limitations of science in understanding atmospheric behavior, as is the chaos theory of meteorologist Edward Lorenz who proposed to explain why weather forecasts are so difficult, or the complex systems of Edgar Morin, the "strange attractors”.
However, at the same time, the academia has begun a process of recognition of the existence of other epistemes, some older than the scientific itself and which have much to contribute to the knowledge of the behaviour of the climate on the basis of its old relationship with climatic variability. Cultures settled in tropical latitudes, and even more if they are from mountains, have knowledge of the climate and atmosphere not yet deciphered by atmospheric sciences, arising the need for an alliance between science and the other epistemes of Mesoamerica, the Andean zone, Africa, India, China, to mention the most important ones.
The issue now is rather how the bridges will be built between these climate-related epistemes, which are often held by ancestral cultures that are basically oral and make languages play a very important role in decoding this knowledge. Linguistics has a very important role here.
Ancestral knowledge, traditional knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peasant knowledge ( there is no consensus on how to name them yet) have much to contribute and today they are widely recognized, for example in the three most important environmental conventions of the United Nations: Climate Change, Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Traditional knowledge has shown us that climate can be understood from other perspectives, from plants, animals, insects, cultures, history; but we also have to accept that most of those ancestral cultures are currently cornered, with the lowest levels of quality of life and enduring various discriminations. This cultural aspect is a challenge for EbA, especially for the new paradigms that are being shaped by our relationship with nature in this topic which is fundamentally generational because it is the young people who are going to experience the strongest impacts of climate change.