Protected Areas are in themselves considered adaptation strategies to the effects of climate change because they are spaces in which ecosystems are conserved to buffer the impacts of extreme climatic events and guarantee the provision of ecosystem services (WWF, 2016).
In this context, Natural Protected Areas - NPAs are required to fulfill the role for which they were established or, in any case, be effective in their terms. In this sense, planning in a changing climate requires a prospective vision incorporating adaptation and mitigation measures to Climate Change.
On the other hand, in the peruvian case where NPAs are primary and basic as livelihoods or others because of the ecosystem services they provide and their vulnerability condition, it becomes a challenge to identify which approaches to adaptation are more logical and friendly in the management of areas in their eagerness to achieve effectiveness.
Therefore, in relation to adaptation measures, the peruvian NPAs are prioritizing interventions with an Ecosystem-based Adaptation - EbA approach that consider maintaining or generating benefits for the population from the ecosystem services provided through interventions on the ecosystems themselves, which allow them to be resilient to the effects associated with Climate Change.
In this regard, it should be noted that the EbA approach is consistent with the Effective Management to which we aim in the NPA, which is defined as that which allows the conservation of the values that justify the existence of areas, ecosystem services and the generation of associated socio-economic benefits (SERNANP, 2017).
There are several EbA experiences in the NPAs associated with maintaining the supply of water and other ecosystem resources; for example in the Nor Yauyos Cochas Landscape Reserve, Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, and Tuntanain Communal Reserve. On the basis of these initiatives, especially the first, the foundations have been laid for the EbA approach to be scaled up to the level of the system of protected areas (SINANPE). In addition, a working group was established to discuss the incorporation of climate variables and vulnerability itself, and since this approach to adaptation is part of the lines of action or activities of the management itself, a first exercise has been achieved that incorporates the climate variable in the conceptual models of the Master Plans (SERNANP, 2015) and the vulnerability analysis for the NPA System (SERNANP, 2014) was prepared, to mention some of the efforts made; the challenge now is to scale up these efforts and the lessons learned to strategic planning at the NPA System level and their contribution to the national adaptation plan within the framework of NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions).
Considering the above, the planning logic is being updated in the NPAs so that the EbA approach is integrated in each of the planning stages at the Master Plan level: from vision, objectives, lines of action and subsequently in the monitoring of the measures and the climate. On this last point, the task has just begun because a system for monitoring climate and its impacts is being designed - within the framework of the NDCs - (MINAM, 2018), in such a way that it will eventually allow for climate data and impact evaluations of the appropriate measures for the design and projection of the most adjusted climate scenarios in the NPAs to allow for adapting the planned measures.
As you can see, there is still a lot on the plate and on that road we go.
SERNANP, 2014. Working paper 12. Vulnerability Analysis of Natural Protected Areas to Climate Change.
SERNANP, 2015. Working paper 14: Master Plans for Natural Protected Areas that incorporate the climatic factor. Methodological aspects and guidelines for their elaboration and/of updating.
MINAM, 2018. Final Report of the temporary Working Group on Nature in charge of generating technical information to guide the implementation of NAtionally Determined Contributions (GTM- NDC) : http://www.minam.gob.pe/cambioclimatico/wp-content/uploads/sites/127/2018/12/Informe-final-GTM-NDC_v17dic18.pdf
WWF, 2016. TOP 5: Why are protected areas key to tackle climate change. http://www.wwf.org.pe/?275390/TOP-5-areas-protegidas-cla-